The Fourth and Fifth armies were to press southeastward into Lorraine from the north while the Sixth and Seventh armies, striking southwestward in Lorraine, sought to break through the fortified barrier between Toul and Épinal, the “jaws” thus closing inward on either side of Verdun. Map Archive People in History R - Z Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... French infantry moving into position during World War I. Source Text - By Author MAPS:  Ea-Et Sitemap 23. About Georges Clemenceau     The Allied victory started the … The First Battle of the Marne was fought between Germany and the Allied powers of France and England. The Battle of the Marne. Archaeologists, Wars, Battles & Revolutions Sitemap 09    "In memory of all combatants of the 1st Battle of the Marne from 4.9.1914 until 10.9.1914" We continue for about 2 km. 7, 1917, Map of the Western Front 1918 - Five German Marne River, river, northern France, 326 miles (525 km) long, rising 4.5 miles (7.2 km) south of Langres on the Langres Plateau. Wars & • Major J. W. Anderson. It is difficult to see how the German command could have reasonably pinned its faith on achieving as an improvised expedient the very task which in cool calculation before the war had appeared so hopeless as to lead it to take the momentous decision to advance through Belgium as the only feasible alternative. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. This retreat was achieved not a moment too soon, as the rest of the German First Army under Gen. Alexander von Kluck was marching still farther westward to envelop the BEF’s open left flank. The Second Battle of the Marne lasted from July 15 to August 6, 1918, and was fought during World War I.Conceived as an attempt to draw Allied troops south from Flanders to facilitate an attack in that region, the offensive along the Marne proved to be the last the German Army would mount in the conflict. The battle was the culmination of the Retreat from Mons and pursuit of the Franco–British armies which followed the Battle of the Frontiers in August and reached the eastern outskirts of Paris. The First Battle of the Marne was a battle of the First World War fought from 6 to 12 September 1914. The whole left wing was ordered to turn about and return to a general offensive on September 6. The French 6th Army, under M.-J.…, …but were stopped at the Battle of the Marne (September 1914) in northern France. EUROPE MAPS: T - Z, Map Description Historical map of the Western Front during World War I. Feb 7-22, 1915, Map of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli 1918, Map of the Western Front - Sept 25-Nov 11, People in History G - I Revolutions B - E 1, 1916, Map of the First Battle of the Somme - Jul Meanwhile, the First and Second armies were to turn outward and, facing west from the Marne valley, to hold off any countermove, which the French attempted from the neighbourhood of Paris. The request came at a moment when Moltke was becoming perturbed over the way the French were slipping away from his grasp. While Paris was preparing for a siege, the Allies exploited the gap between the German First and Second armies. The spirited writing is supported by six excellent maps and twenty-eight well-captioned photographs.Vol. Media in category "Maps of the Battle of the Marne (1914)" The following 47 files are in this category, out of 47 total. The British Expeditionary Force, after concentrating near Maubeuge, France, had moved up to Mons, Belgium, on August 22, ready to advance farther into Belgium as part of the offensive of the Allied left wing. It was the first major Allied victory in World War I and came at a time when the Germany Army was rapidly advancing through the Low Countries and into France in what was known as the Schlieffen Plan. ALL-TIME RECORDS IN HISTORY, SOURCE TEXT          Sitemap 07   Sitemap 08   HISTORY DICTIONARY          If the direction of Kluck’s advance was partly due to a misconception of the line of retreat taken by the British, it was also in accordance with his original role of executing a wide circling sweep. MAPS: O - S Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Realignment Following the First World War. 1918 - Final Allied Offensive, Map of the Battles of the Meuse-Argonne - Troublemakers Browse Sitemap 04   Lanrezac’s attack, on August 29, was stopped before Bülow needed this aid, but he asked Kluck to wheel in nevertheless, in order to cut off Lanrezac’s retreat. On this day in 1918, near the Marne River in the Champagne region of France, the Germans begin what would be their final offensive push of World War I. In this “disappearance” lay the unintentional cause of victory. Moltke further undermined the effectiveness of the Schlieffen Plan on August 25 when he decided to send four divisions to check the Russian advance in East Prussia (that advance would be shattered at the Battle of Tannenberg, weeks before the detached troops would arrive on the Eastern Front). EUROPE The jaw formed by the German Sixth and Seventh armies merely broke its teeth on the defenses of the French eastern frontier. chronologically or by continent. 1914 (Part 1), Map of the Battle of Tannenberg - August In the Second Battle of Marne with 30,000 killed and wounded, the United States started suffering casualties on the enormous scale usually associated with the battles of the Great War. The “Race to the Sea” had begun. For, in order to ease the pressure on the British, Joffre had ordered Lanrezac to halt and strike back against the pursuing Germans, and Bülow, shaken by the threat, called on Kluck for aid. First Battle of the Marne The dotted line on the map shows how far the Germans had advanced into France before the First Battle of the Marne. Updates? Omissions? Philosophers September 6-12, 1914, Map of the Eastern Front - Sept 28-Nov 1, Sept 26-Nov 11, 1918, Map of the Battle of Vittorio Veneto - Oct Significance. ASIA MAPS: There the Germans unexpectedly defeated two large Russian armies at the…, …of the battles of the Marne. Sitemap 15    Revolutions F - G Further, the German command lost touch with the advancing armies, and movements at the front became disjointed. Moreover, it carried him into the Amiens-Péronne area, where the first elements of the newly formed French Sixth Army were just detraining after their “switch” from Alsace. 1-Nov 13, 1916, Map of the Romanian Campaign - Aug 27-Sep On September 4 Joffre, convinced by Gallieni’s arguments, decisively ordered his whole left wing to turn about from their retreat and to begin a general offensive against the Germans’ exposed right flank on September 6. realignments resulting from the First World HISTORY MAPS   -   Plan XVII had vastly underestimated the size of German invasion forces, and its execution would have dramatically enhanced the effectiveness of the German Schlieffen Plan. About Woodrow Wilson, People in Downloads On September 7 and 8, Maunoury’s forces were reinforced by about 3,000 infantrymen who were transported to the battle from Paris by some 600 taxis, the first automotive transport of troops in the history of war. Their direction of advance was across a region intersected by frequent rivers, and this handicap was intensified by a lack of initiative on the part of their chiefs. Battles M - P (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Reference Maps on About Us French commander in chief Gen. Joseph-Jacques-Césaire Joffre at last recognized the folly of pressing ahead with Plan XVII, the planned French offensive into Alsace and Lorraine. The first Battle of the Marne-- sometimes it's called the Miracle of the Marne-- if the French, with British help, were not able to push the Germans back, they might have accomplished the Schlieffen Plan and actually maybe would have won World War I, or at least been able to win the Western front fairly quickly. 1915: German Breakthrough in the On September 3, when the German First Army was crossing the Marne east of Paris, Gallieni realized the meaning of Kluck’s wheel inward and directed Gen. Michel-Joseph Maunoury’s Sixth Army to be ready to strike at the exposed German right flank. By then the German armies had recovered cohesion, and the German command was expecting and ready to meet such a maneuver, now the obvious course. Scientists & Inventors Search About Nicholas II     1914: Campaign in Southwest Poland, Map of the Western Front: Sept 30-Nov 11, Greater results might have come if more effort had been made, as Gallieni urged, to strike at the rear flank of the Kluck’s First Army instead of the front and to direct reinforcements to the northwest of Paris for this purpose. As a result of the battle the Germans were pushed back to the solid line marked in red. 1916, Map of the Eastern Front - March 1916 - Sitemap 19   Sitemap 20   The American Expeditionary Force with over 250,000 men fighting under overall French command played key roles both in the initial defense and the later advances. Revolutions H - J AMERICA The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne, Le Miracle de la Marne) was a World War I battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German armies in the west. Meanwhile, General Paul von Hindenburg was reactivated at age 67 and sent with Major General Erich Ludendorff to halt the Russian advance into East Prussia. About World War I     Explorers, Battles A - C Once convinced, Joffre acted decisively. MAPS: G Sitemap 12 Sommaisne 1914.jpg 1,312 × 1,682; 832 KB MAP ARCHIVE          Wars & The new pessimism of Moltke and the renewed optimism of his army commanders together produced a fresh change of plan, which contained the seeds of disaster. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The first month of the First World War had resulted in a series of victories by German forces in France and Belgium. Kluck was emboldened to take the risk because of the rapid retreat of the British opposite—or rather with their backs to—this gaping sector. One, Map of Europe in 1919: the national boundary MAPS: F Historic Wars & Battles 1800 - Today, Miscellaneous PEOPLE IN EUROPE MAPS: ASIA MAPS: EUROPE MAPS: He was concerned in particular with a gap which had opened between his Second and Third armies as a result of the latter’s having already turned south, from southwest, to help the Fourth Army, its neighbour on the other flank. First Battle of the Marne. Invasion, Map of the Battle of the Masurian Lakes - The British stand at Le Cateau (August 26), interrupting the retreat from Mons, and Lanrezac’s riposte at Guise (August 29) were also factors in checking the German enveloping wing, and each had still greater indirect effects. The next day Lanrezac had word of the fall of Namur and of the presence of the German Third Army under Gen. Max von Hausen on his exposed right flank near Dinant, on the Meuse. Thereby a 30-mile (48-km) gap was created between the German First Army (in the vicinity of Meaux) and the Second (east of Montmirail)—a gap covered only by a screen of cavalry. The temporary advantage which the German First Army had gained over Maunoury was thereby nullified, and it fell back the same day. Wars & Moltke, therefore, approved Kluck’s change of direction—which meant the inevitable abandonment of the original wide sweep round the far side of Paris. Map of the Battle of the Marne, fought from 6th to 9th September 1914, during the First World War: map by John Fawkes The German strategy assumed that the BEF was no longer an effective fighting force, and that General Manoury’s 6th Army on the German western flank was no threat, both assumptions to be proved wrong in the Battle of the Marne. 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