By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the shogun already possessed eight Western-style steam warships around the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin war, under the command of Admiral Enomoto. [7], This enduring structure throughout the Tokugawa period provided discipline and respect for authority that carried over into the Meiji Reformation period, which allowed a relatively smooth transition with only a few exceptions such as samurai rebellions, discussed in the second part of this essay. The cause for the end of this period is controversial but is recounted as the forcing of Japan's opening to the world by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy, whose armada (known by Japanese as " the black ships ") fired weapons from Edo Bay. [7] Although many tensions existed in this structure, the Japanese grew accustomed to serving a leader, ultimately the emperor, and the structure provided a source of social stability, which led to two and half centuries of relative tranquillity under Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa Shogunate, also known as the Edo Period, was a time of much peace and cultural growth in Japan from 1603 to 1867. [3] The Tokugawa government alone dealt with the imperial court, the imperial nobility and the emperor himself. [14], While the shogunate sought to maintain political control and its view of an ideal society, a market economy, urbanization, travel, and publishing all played a role in changing society. [17] Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. The Japanese government pressed for policies which would revive the industrial economy without success until the Occupation began to modify the economic policies in 1948 in response to the rise of the Cold War internationally and resistance in America to subsidizing Japan's economic existence (some $1.5 billion was pumped into Japan in the fist years of the Occupation, yet the entire gross national product was only $1.3 billion in 1946). Just like the government system which grew to perfection, the economy also grew and changed. The period of the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate, known as the Edo period, brought 250 years of stability to Japan. Not only did the economic infrastructure, such as markets, banking, and transportation, develop rapidly during the Tokugawa period, the people also developed basic skills to allow them to support the rapid economic growth of the Meiji period. [4] [8] [7], The period marks the governance of the Edo or Tokugawa shogunate, which was officially established in 1603 by the first Edo shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. [2] Kamm. [9] [2] Tokugawa Yoshinobu, realizing the futility of his situation, abdicated political power to the emperor, essentially ending both the power of the Tokugawa and the shogunate that had ruled Japan for over 250 years. [6] In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family's name. Economists began to question where the capital for this miracle came from if both government and economy were as impoverished as thought; the number and amount of foreign loans in the period were negligible. It led directly to the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and the western Great Powers and eventually to collapse of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate. Can you imagine if your country shut out all influence and trade from the outside world, except maybe a couple nearby countries? The Tokugawa Shogunate was the shogunate in modern Japanese history, which succeeded in centralizing the power of the nation's government and people during its 265-year rule. [11] [3] The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for themselves. [7] [16] [2] [4] [15] [13] Rights Reserved. [8] [23] In January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Chshū marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. [9] What economic and social changes occurred in Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate? This Tokugawa period is viewed as Japan's "pre-modern" period and is important to historians as they attempt to define what is "modernization" in many contexts. The Tokugawa shogunate could point out that the treaty was not actually signed by the Shogun or any of his rōjū, and by the agreement made, had at least temporarily averted the possibility of immediate military confrontation. 江戸時代, Edo jidai) oder Tokugawa-Zeit wird der Abschnitt der japanischen Geschichte von 1603 bis 1868 bezeichnet, in dem die Tokugawa-Shogune herrschten.Die Edo-Zeit ist benannt nach dem damaligen Namen der Hauptstadt, Edo (heute Tokio).Sie beinhaltet die längste Friedenszeit der japanischen Geschichte (auch als Pax Tokugawa bezeichnet) mit einer Dauer von … Name: Date: Block: Tokugawa Japan and the Shogunate System Part A: As you are watching this Video on Japan’s Shogunate System, record the function of each of the social classes mentioned and the ways they interacted. [14] The Japanese government pressed for policies which would revive the industrial economy without success until the Occupation began to modify the economic policies in 1948 in response to the rise of the Cold War internationally and resistance in America to subsidizing Japan's economic existence (some $1.5 billion was pumped into Japan in the fist years of the Occupation, yet the entire gross national product was only $1.3 billion in 1946). [14], This suspicion of the western world also affected Japanese trade. The reunification of Japan is accomplished by three strong daimyo who succeed each other: Oda Nobunaga (1543-1582), Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), and finally Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) who establishes the Tokugawa Shogunate, that governs for more than 250 years, following the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. [17] After the Meiji restoration, the leaders of the samurai who overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate had no pre-developed plan on how to run Japan. [9] [3] Although some disruptions occurred in the Meiji Restoration period up to 1890, several elements of Tokugawa society allowed Japan to move smoothly toward modernization. Meiji Restoration, in Japanese history, the political revolution in 1868 that brought about the final demise of the Tokugawa shogunate (military government)--thus ending the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603-1867)--and, at least nominally, returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under Mutsuhito (the emperor Meiji). [15] [4] [4] Note: Footnotes & Links provided to all original resources. During the period, Japan studied Western sciences and techniques (called rangaku, "Dutch studies") through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima. Japan went through just this during the Tokugawa Shogunate. [7] By 1612, the shōgun ' s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. During the Great Peace of the Tokugawa era, many economic and societal changes occurred in Japan. [7], Their economy relied primarily on the patronage of such individuals in order to sustain itself. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built its first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista, a 500- ton galleon -type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas and then to Europe. [4] March 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) The Tokugawa shogunate (徳川幕府, Tokugawa bakufu), also … [11] The Dutch learning encouraged the Japanese scholars to criticise the Shogunate for the shortcomings of the closed door policy. The requirement of daimyô to maintain residences in Edo and to travel there generally every other year claimed a high portion of the daimyô's income, but their spending stimulated development of other sectors of the economy, especially as daimyô engaged in conspicuous consumption to display their status and compete with other daimyô. [7] 997-1022. By the end of the Tokugawa period, Japan had laid the foundations for subsequent industrialization and economic modernization. [2], A revolution took place from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which existed with the Tennō's court, to the Tokugawa, when the samurai became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a "centralized feudal " form of shogunate. [22] In line with this, the Tokugawa shogunate restricted diplomatic contact by prohibiting any Europeans except the Dutch from coming to Japan after 1639; this was the policy of national seclusion (sakoku). [17] [23], After a long period of inner conflict, the first goal of the newly established Tokugawa government was to pacify the country. [10] In an effort to reestablish order in its international relations, however, the Tokugawa Shogunate prohibits trade with Western nations, prohibits Japanese from going abroad to trade (ending the unofficial piracy and trade on the China coast), and reaffirms Japan's official relations with China and Korea within the East Asian international structure. The Tokugawa regime divided the population into four categories of social class. The Tokugawa shogunate was very much like any domainal government in that it was responsible first for the administration of a limited territory, the fief of the Tokugawa house. [12] [7] Privacy Policy  | [12] The story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. The Tokugawa shogunate also went to great lengths to suppress social unrest. [5], Besides small trade of some outer daimyōs with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan's main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku to Nagasaki. Confucianism which was the official ideology of the Tokugawa house during the Edo period focused attention on the emperor. The fudai won the power struggle, however, installing Tokugawa Yoshitomi, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shōin (1830-1859), a leading sonnō-jōi intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of exclusion. [10] Ieyasu's victory over the western daimyōs at the Battle of Sekigahara (October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the Keichō era) gave him control of all Japan. [6] [7], Japan's medieval period was characterized by a de-centralized government, perpetual warfare, and the rise of a powerful warrior class. The Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown by the Meiji Restoration on 3 May 1868, the fall of Edo and the restoration of Tenno's rule at the reign of fifteenth and last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu. 54, No. The Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown by the Meiji Restoration on 3 May 1868, the fall of Edo and the restoration of Tenno's rule at the reign of fifteenth and last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu. New studies of the Edo period were undertaken and they began to show that although slow growth may have been the rule in the large urban centers, in the smaller cities and in many rural districts the economy continued to change and grow throughout the Edo period. [15] When the shōgun died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), for shōgun, a candidate favored by the shinpan and tozama daimyōs. What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? [16] Japan's economy at this time was based on rice, and Tokugawa had by far the greatest area under rice cultivation. [4] [16], The shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603, by Tokugawa Ieyasu. [4], The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive "feudal" rule. [2], During this period, Japan closed itself off from much of the western world, and the Act of Seclusion in 1636 shut off trade with western countries. This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. For overthrow of the shogunate was a time of the market and monetization of the,... 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