€ (a) €€€€The symbol equation for this reaction is shown below. (1 mark) 4 (b) Calcium carbonate is an insoluble solid that can be used in a reaction to lower the acidity of the water in a lake. (a) The mechanism of the nitration of methylbenzene is an electrophilic substitution. Since the reaction forms a cyclic product, via a cyclic transition state, it can also be described as a "cycloaddition". two atoms of a compound are lost. could occur at high temperatures, but not at lower temperatures. The mechanism of Reaction 1 involves attack by an electrophile. This prediction is borne out experimentally. Which factors would increase the rate of a chemical reaction? Which of the following processes involve an increase in entropy? Three different ways of producing ethanol are shown below. The product(s) of the reaction shown below are? Equations and mechanisms with curly arrows are not required. This apparatus is used for the reaction of copper oxide (CuO) with methane (CH4). 3H^2 + N^2 ---> 2NH^3 a) N^2 b) H^2 c) NH^3 d) NH^4+ For Reaction 4, give the reagent and condition used and name the mechanism. For a chemical reaction to occur, all of the following must happen except. 6 Areas outside the box will not be scanned for marking 4 Group 2 metals and their compounds are used commercially in a variety of processes and applications. Given the potential energy diagram: With reference to energy, the reaction A + B → AB can best be described as 1) endothermic, having a +ΔH 2) endothermic, having a –ΔH 3) exothermic, having a +ΔH 4) exothermic, having a –ΔH 28. The vast number of chemical reactions can be classified in any number of ways. Below are two reaction coordinates of two reactions. CCl4 1 2 3 Br Br Br … Suggest an identity for compound V. For Reaction 3, give the reagent used and name the mechanism. Which factors would decrease the rate of a reaction? the rates of the reaction in the forward and reverse directions are exactly equal, 2 SO2 (g) + O2 (g) ⇌2 SO3(g) + heat K = 4.8 × 1027. B)a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce CO2, H2O, and energy. The formation of which product(s) will most likely be observed in a combustion reaction? Which reactants will form products? Explain the, This statement means that the food energy contained in one serving of cookies is 100 kilocalories. electrons are exchanged between two atoms. Write an equation for the complete combustion of ethanol. ions are exchanged between two compounds. Enthalpy and entropy are of equal importance in determining the spontaneity of a reaction. Which is a characteristic of a decomposition reaction? C)hydrogenation. A process or reaction which takes in heat from the surroundings is said to be, A process or reaction which releases heat to the surroundings is said to be, The scientific principle which explains the observation that the amount of heat transfer, All of the statements regarding the symbol ʺΔHʺ are correct except, To simplify comparisons, the energy value of fuels is expressed in units of. Identify the starting material in the reaction shown below. Oxidation is the loss of electrons, gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen. The formula equation for the chemical reaction CO2 is CH4+2O2= CO2+2H2O. This compound, shown below, can be prepared from methylbenzene by a sequence of nitration reactions. Which type of chemical reaction occurs in C6H12 + 9O2 mc031-1.jpg 6CO2 + 6H2O? Which statement best describes the way a catalyst works? potential energy diagram of a chemical reaction shown below. It allows us to identify an exothermic reaction. A... reaction occurs when one compound reacts and is broken down into different elements or simpler compounds. There are three definitions you can use for oxidation: 1. CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 O NaOCH 2 CH 3 O CO 2 CH 2 CH 3 O A) 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanone C) 2,6-dimethylcyclohex-2-enone B) 2,6-dimethylcyclohexane D) Aniline Ans: C 20. The reaction is a concerted process: Due to the high degree of both regio- and stereoselectivity (due to the concerted mechanism), the Diels-Alder reaction is a very powerful reaction and is therefore widely used in synthetic organic chemistry. 37)An elimination reaction can best be described as a reaction in which A)two reactants combine to form one new product with no extra atoms. 70.8 kcal are produced when 32.1 g of sulfur reacts. Reactions of this type can never be spontaneous. having a small value of activation energy. Paddington Academy (c) Cyclohexene can be converted into amine W by the two-step synthesis shown below. For Reaction 4, give the reagent and condition used and name the mechanism. Equations and mechanisms with curly arrows are not required. A) exothermic reaction in which energy is released B) exothermic reaction in which energy is absorbed C) endothermic reaction in which energy is released D) endothermic reaction in which energy is absorbed 13.The forward reaction is best described as an A) A B) B C) C D) D Thermodynamics Review 27. It is claimed that the ethanol produced in this way is a carbon-neutral biofuel. Since the forward reaction is nonspontaneous, we expect the reverse reaction to be spontaneous. (a) €€€€Compounds F and G have the molecular formula C6H4N2O4 and both are dinitrobenzenes. What substances are present in the reaction mixture when equilibrium has been obtained? Which compound would you e… ... Activation energy can best be described as. The position of equilibrium of a reversible reaction can be altered by changing the reaction conditions. B) k−1[ES] + k2[ES]. The major products of the reaction shown below can be described as a A meso The major products of the reaction shown below can be School University of Waterloo Course Title CHEM 266 H2O A 2,2-dimethyl-propan-1-ol B 3-methyl-butan-2-ol C 3-methyl-butan-1-ol D 2-methyl-butan-1-ol E 2-methyl-butan-2-ol 7. When 1 mol P4 (s) is produced, 304.0 kcal are consumed. Reduction is the gain of electrons, loss of oxygen or gain or hydrogen. For the reaction given below, what quantity of heat will be produced if 90 g of C3H8 are consumed, A reaction is said to be ________ if the bonds formed during the reaction are stronger than the. Removing O2 will cause an increase in the amount of SO3. F has two peaks in its 13C n.m.r. D)dehydrogenation. Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop. D)a single reactant undergoes reorganization of its chemical bonds, producing an isomer of the the difference in energy between reactants and the maximum energy. For many years it was thought that this reaction occurred through a single bimolecular collision. What is this type of chemical reaction called? The function of a catalyst in a reaction system is to, Sketch a diagram to illustrate the role of orientation in determining whether a collision, The diagram should show the two diatomic molecules touching each other so that the two pairs of different atoms are. The system can then be said to feed back into itself. 29)The saponification reaction used to form soaps can be more specifically described as A)dehydration. 3 (a) Define the term Brønsted–Lowry acid. A nutritionist calls, A reaction that is spontaneous can be described as, proceeding without external influence once it has begun, In the process of dissolving sugar in water, the entropy increases. All of the statements regarding the symbol ΔG are true except. The sodium here is a counterion which is most often not important in organic reactions, so the equation can also be shown without it: So, to generalize this; if you need to choose a base to deprotonate a compound that has, for example, a p K a = 10, you can pick anything from the p K a table that has a p K a > 10 and use its conjugate base . The gain of oxygen 3. The reaction shown below can be described as an: A) acid–base reaction followed by an intramolecular Williamson ether synthesis. A double replacement reaction can be best described as a reaction in which... a substitution takes place. B) acid–base reaction followed by an intramolecular S N 1 reaction.. C) E2 reaction followed by an addition reaction to a double bond. If heat is consumed during a reaction, the reaction is said to be ________. Using the activity series provided. P4 (s) + 10 Cl2 (g) → 4 PCl5 (s) ΔH = -435.2 kcal. Suggest an identity for compound V. For Reaction 3, give the reagent used and name the mechanism. A reaction which is unfavorable with respect to entropy, but favorable with respect to enthalpy. The reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia is described as an equilibrium reaction. The loss of hydrogen B)acid hydrolysis. Diatomic nitrogen is added to the equilibrium system: For the following reaction, increasing the pressure will cause the equilibrium ________. Reaction rates are determined by all of the following factors except. Write an equation showing the formation of this electrophile. B)simple esters of fatty acids. (1 mark) 3 (b) Three equilibria are shown below. However, it is now thought that the mechanism is I2(g) <---> I(g) + I(g) fast I(g) + H2(g) <---> IH2(g) fast IH2(g) + I(g) ---> 2HI(g) slow What is the rate law for this reaction? C)salts of carboxylic acids. techniques can be used to distinguish between possible structural isomers. Complete the following equations (note that the equations are not balanced). Br2? What is the MAJOR product of the reaction shown below?? Under one scheme they can be categorized either as oxidation-reduction (electron transfer) reactions or non-oxidation-reduction reactions. Substance XYZ breaks down into X, Y, and Z. All of the statements are true for spontaneous reactions except. Propane burns in air to produce carbon dioxide and water. A process which is unfavorable with respect to enthalpy, but favorable with respect to entropy. (b) Benzene can be converted into amine U by the two-step synthesis shown below. 43.2 kcal are consumed when 1.00 mole of O2 reacts. Use the activity series if necessary. A chemical reaction has two elements as reactants. H-Br (a) This reaction is regioselective and stereoselective. Use … € 1 (a) €€€€Reaction 1 produces a 15% aqueous solution of ethanol. 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